monochromatic

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commit 8cb177ec82ebb8383625c9075272f96b5758a1c0
parent 7f3dc26e2650b1bc88444a21c64d097fbfde0eca
Author: Willy Goiffon <willy@mailoo.org>
Date:   Mon, 28 Oct 2013 23:29:26 +0100

Finished article home, sweet home

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2013/10/home-sweet-home.html | 348+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++--
1 file changed, 342 insertions(+), 6 deletions(-)

diff --git a/2013/10/home-sweet-home.html b/2013/10/home-sweet-home.html @@ -19,7 +19,22 @@ &mdash; 28 October, 2013 </h2> <article> - <h3>Article in progress [...]</h3> + <h3>Summary</h3> + <p> + Yes, a summary, because taht's gonna be a LONG article. + <ul> + <li><a href="#intro">Introduction</a></li> + <li><a href="#wm">Window manager</a></li> + <li><a href="#term">Terminal</a></li> + <li><a href="#sh">Shell</a></li> + <li><a href="#cli">CLI tools</a></li> + <li><a href="#bar">Status bar</a></li> + <li><a href="#setup">Integration</a></li> + </ul> + </p> + + <hr/> + <h3 id="intro">Introduction</h3> <p> Okay, so you have finally installed your distro of choice, cleaned the whole setup, installed X.org, xterm and vim...<br /> @@ -46,7 +61,8 @@ <strong>setting up your home!</strong> </p> - <h3>Window manager</h3> + <hr/> + <h3 id="wm">Window manager</h3> <p> This is the most important part of your future environment. It is the god that will tell all your windows where to go, how to move, @@ -104,16 +120,201 @@ even prettier!<br /> </p> - Here is a quick CWM setup, using compton and librgba:<br /> <br /> <a class='a_img' href='/img/2013-10-28-cwm.jpg'> <img class='a_img' src='/img/thumb/2013-10-28-cwm.jpg' alt='cwm screenshot'/> </a> + <span class="caption">Here is a quick CWM setup, using compton and + librgba</span> </p> <p> Oh! A last advice, <strong>do not bind applications through your WM</strong>. Using an application like <a href="http://www.nongnu.org/xbindkeys/xbindkeys.html">xbindkeys</a> to do that is a better idea, as it follow the <a href="http://www.faqs.org/docs/artu/ch01s06.html">UNIX philosophy</a>, and it will help you a lot if you want to try another WM. </p> - <h3>CLI tools</h3> + + <hr/> + <h3 id="term">Terminal</h3> + <p> + Here we are. The terminal. The central part of the whole setup! + <br /> + As an advanced user, you spend a lot of time within the terminal, + so it is important to keep your terminal a pleasant place for your + eyes.<br /> + There are, in fact, only two ways to tweak your terminal: + <strong>colors and font</strong>. The goal is to find the best + readability/usability/awesomeness ratio.<br /> + I'd recommend that you start from a dark scheme, as it's better for + your eyes by night (But that's just my opinion, light colorschemes + can look pretty good!).<br /> + Terminals usually manage up to 256 colors, but you will use only 16 + of them:<br /> + &rarr; [0-7] for normal text<br /> + &rarr; [8-15] for bold text<br /> + Here is the color chart: + <ul> + <li>00 &mdash; Dark black</li> + <li>01 &mdash; Dark red</li> + <li>02 &mdash; Dark green</li> + <li>03 &mdash; Dark yellow</li> + <li>04 &mdash; Dark blue</li> + <li>05 &mdash; Dark magenta</li> + <li>06 &mdash; Dark cyan</li> + <li>07 &mdash; Dark white</li> + <li>08 &mdash; Light black</li> + <li>09 &mdash; Light red</li> + <li>10 &mdash; Light green</li> + <li>11 &mdash; Light yellow</li> + <li>12 &mdash; Light blue</li> + <li>13 &mdash; Light magenta</li> + <li>14 &mdash; Light cyan</li> + <li>15 &mdash; Light white</li> + </ul> + Now, just tweak each color to fit your perfect theme!<br /> + To do so, refer to the manual of your terminal. + </p> + <p> + If you don't have one, here is a list of terminal you can use: + <ul> + <li><a href="http://software.schmorp.de/pkg/rxvt-unicode.html">rxvt-unicode</a></li> + <li><a href="https://github.com/thestinger/termite/">termite</a></li> + <li><a href="http://www.calno.com/evilvte/">evilvte</a> + <li><a href="http://www.afterstep.org/aterm.php">aterm</a> + <li><a href="http://freecode.com/projects/mterm">mterm</a> + </ul> + I have stick with rxvt-unicode (urxvt) personnally. I find it pretty + powerfull, light and fast. Also, it can be extended in perl, which + is great (muh URL selection). + </p> + <p> + Back to terminal colors! The best way I know to change the terminal + colorscheme, is using the X server resource database (xrdb). But it + does not work with every terminal (it works, at least, with xterm and + urxvt).<br /> + All you have to do, is configure your colors in a file called + <code>~/.Xresources</code>, and source it with the command: + <code><pre>xrbd -load ~/.Xresources</pre></code> + For example, here is mine (screenshot at the end of the section): + <code> + <pre> +*background:#222222 +*foreground:#e8e9ca + +*color0: #222222 +*color1: #8b3e2f +*color2: #526f33 +*color3: #665847 +*color4: #4a708b +*color5: #7a378b +*color6: #528b8b +*color7: #999999 + +*color8: #4c4c4c +*color9: #d75f00 +*color10: #cee318 +*color11: #eee685 +*color12: #9ac0cd +*color13: #9f79ee +*color14: #79cdcd +*color15: #e8e9ca + </pre> + </code> + </p> + <p> + For the font, it's quite the same, but I suggest that you search for + the terms <em>xft font</em>, <em>bitmap fonts</em> and <em>X + resources</em> cause it can be a little tricky to understand. + <br /> + Quickly, there are two way to draw fonts in your terminal, with, and + without xft. XFT allows you to draw nice fonts and scale them the + way you want, like BitStream Vera Sans, Monospace, etc... But these + are "slow" to draw. + The other method is the one used by TTY, bitmap fonts. Those are + fixed pixeled font that can look odd, but draw fastly.<br /> + Just make a choice.<br /> + To declare a XFT font: + <code><pre>*font: xft:&lt;font name&gt;:size=&lt;size&gt;</pre></code> + To declare a bitmap font (I'm not sure for every bit, so I'll leave + a * where I don't know the meaning. If you can help, or if I'm wrong, + <a href="mailto:willy@mailoo.org">Mail me</a> please): + <code><pre>*font: -&lt;family&gt;-&lt;name&gt;-&lt;type&gt;-*-*--&lt;height&gt;-*-*-*-*-*-&lt;encoding&gt;-&lt;encoding_number&gt;</pre></code> + + Here is a small example: + <code> + <pre> +*font: xft:monospace:size=10 +*font: -misc-tamsyn-medium-*-*--14-101-*-*-*-*-* + </pre> + </code> + </p> + <p> + So, we have seen how to tweak the terminal, let's see what it looks + like! + I wrote a small script for the purpose:<br /> + <br /> + <a class='a_img' href='/img/2013-10-28-term.jpg'> + <img class='a_img' src='/img/thumb/2013-10-28-term.jpg' alt='term screenshot'/> + </a> + <a class="caption" href="http://git.z3bra.org/cgit.cgi/scripts/tree/info.sh">info.sh</a><br /> + </p> + + <hr/> + <h3 id="sh">Shell</h3> + <p> + right after seeing the terminal, you can't avoid it's main program: + <strong>the shell</strong>.<br /> + If you don't know this already, the shell is the link between the + user and the programs. It's a program you will communicate with to + manipulate your system. An important program tough.<br /> + Choose it carefully then. Here is the main shell list: + <ul> + <li>sh &mdash; The historical shell</li> + <li>bash &mdash; Improved shell, based on sh</li> + <li>zsh &mdash; An extermly powerfull shell with a great + completion system</li> + <li>fish &mdash; A user friendly shell, really different from the + above</li> + <li>csh &mdash; The Berkeley UNIX shell</li> + <li>tcsh &mdash; An improvement of csh</li> + </ul> + + I personnaly use zsh because it has a feature I like, the right + prompt. also, it's completion system is really great (argument + completion is a good thing to have, trust me..). <br /> + + Anyway, I'll treat here only the "standard shell": bash <br /> + + The first thing you will see from the shell is its prompt. The + prompt is a set of characters that gives info to the user, and + invite him to input commands. Basically, it looks like this: + <code><pre>$ </pre></code> + Fancy huh ? + The prompt chars are contained in the variable <code>PS1</code> for + sh/bash, and <code>PROMPT</code>/<code>RPROMPT</code> for zsh. + <code> + <pre> +$ PS1='z3bra-$ ' +z3bra-$ + </pre> + </code> + (You don't have to issue the two command to make it works.) + Take a look at the bash manpage, section "Prompting" for more info + on how to tweak it. + Here is my personnal prompt: + <code> + <pre> +<span class="Identifier">PROMPT</span>=<span class="Statement">&quot;</span> +<span class="String">%{</span><span class="PreProc">$fg_bold</span><span class="String">[yellow]%} ยป </span><span class="Statement">&quot;</span> +<span class="Identifier">RPROMPT</span>=<span class="Statement">&quot;</span><span class="String">%{</span><span class="PreProc">$fg</span><span class="String">[black]%}%M:%{</span><span class="PreProc">$fg_bold</span><span class="String">[yellow]%}%~%{</span><span class="PreProc">$reset_color</span><span class="String">%} </span><span class="Statement">&quot;</span> + </pre> + </code> + <a class='a_img' href='/img/2013-10-28-shell.jpg'> + <img class='a_img' src='/img/thumb/2013-10-28-shell.jpg' alt='shell screenshot'/> + </a> + <span class="caption">A few different prompts, from top to bottom: + sh, zsh, bash, zsh</span> + </p> + + <hr/> + <h3 id="cli">CLI tools</h3> <p> The shell is the core of a UNIX/Linux based system. So having a bunch of fast, light and efficient CLI tools is a must. There are @@ -144,13 +345,148 @@ href="http://weechat.org/">weechat</a> and <a href="http://sourceforge.net/projects/re-alpine/">Alpine</a>. <br /> - Mandatory screenshot of the setup with those apps (and custom - themes).<br /> <br /> <a class='a_img' href='/img/2013-10-28-cli.jpg'> <img class='a_img' src='/img/thumb/2013-10-28-cli.jpg' alt='cwm screenshot'/> </a> + <span class="caption">Mandatory screenshot of the setup with those apps (and custom + themes).</span> + </p> + + <hr/> + <h3 id="bar">Status bar</h3> + <p> + All of this is great, but I think that if you want to check the + time, you're not willing to open a terminal, and type: + <code><pre>date +%H:%M</pre></code> + It's not really practical most of the time. The same can apply to + the amount of free space, to current volume level or the number of + unread mails you have.<br /> + That's what status bar are made for. They pick infos for you and + display them in a thin bar on an edge of your screen.<br /> + + My bar of choice is, by far, <a + href="https://github.com/LemonBoy/bar">bar ain't recursive</a>, by + Lemon Boy.<br /> + It is light, fast and simple. Exactly how I like it! + the purpose is simple:<br /> + <ol> + <li>Write a script that output a bunch of informations</li> + <li>Pipe that script into the bar</li> + <li>Run them within an infinite loop!</li> + </ol> + + That is all you need. For example, if you only need the date in the bar: + <code><pre>while :; do date; done | bar &</pre></code> + And there you go! + You can achieve really great looking stuff with that simple + process:<br /> + <br /> + <a class='a_img' href='/img/2013-10-28-bar.jpg'> + <img class='a_img' src='/img/thumb/2013-10-28-bar.jpg' alt='bar screenshot'/> + </a> + <span class="caption">You can also choose to put your status bar + within a terminal multiplexer status bar, <a + hreaf="http://calummacrae.blogspot.fr/2012/12/dropping-status-bars-for-tmux-as-im.html">as + phyrne suggested</a> in + one of his blog post</span> + </p> + + <hr/> + <h3 id="setup">Integration</h3> + <p> + Now that we potentially have a working desktop, let make it spawn + correctly, using ONLY on file: <code>~/.xinitrc</code>. + <br /> + That magical file is simply a shell script that is called by default + with <code>startx</code>. + In fact, when you proceed this command, it does the following: + <code><pre>$ startx ~/.xinitrc -- :0</pre></code> + It source your ~/.xinitrc, and launch it on the Xorg server number + 0. + To launch your wm of choice from the xinitrc, just add the command + to launch it in the file, preceded by 'exec'. It will replace the + current process (your shell) by the window manager, so that the + session will terminate with your WM.<br /> </p> + <p> + Okay, now you have the theory. Before starting to pratice, I'll give + you a few hints for a "good" xinitrc (yeah, I love making lists): + <ul> + <li>Launch ONLY session related commands</li> + <li>Make it evolutive, so that you can spawn multiple X sessions + at the same time</li> + <li>Fork every command, except those that are dependent, to speed + up the desktop spawning</li> + </ul> + Finally, here is my own xinitrc + <code> + <pre> +<span class="Comment">#!/bin/bash</span> +<span class="Comment">#</span> +<span class="Comment"># ~/.xinitrc</span> +<span class="Comment">#</span> + +<span class="Comment"># load nvidia config</span> +nvidia-settings <span class="Special">-l</span> + +<span class="Comment"># Set wallpaper</span> +hsetroot <span class="Special">-tile</span> ~/usr/img/<span class="Statement">bg</span>/stripes.png &amp; + +<span class="Comment"># default cursor</span> +xsetroot <span class="Special">-cursor_name</span> left_ptr &amp; + +<span class="Function">function</span> <span class="Function">wm() {</span> + <span class="Comment"># Load X resources</span> + xrdb <span class="Special">-load</span> ~/.Xresources <span class="Statement">&amp;</span> + + <span class="Comment"># personnal bindings</span> + xbindkeys + + <span class="Comment"># set WM name</span> + xsetroot <span class="Special">-name</span> <span class="PreProc">$1</span> + + <span class="Comment">#status bar</span> + ~/bin/bar/status.sh <span class="Statement">&amp;</span> <span class="Comment"># it acts kinda weirdly</span> + + <span class="Comment"># Compositing</span> + <span class="Comment"># enable RGBA module for GTK</span> + <span class="Statement">export</span><span class="Identifier"> GTK_MODULES=</span>rgba + + <span class="Comment">#compton -cCb -t-5 -l-5 -r4.2 -o.4</span> + compton <span class="Special">-cb</span> <span class="Special">-o0</span> + + <span class="Comment"># spawn window manager</span> + <span class="Statement">exec</span> <span class="PreProc">$1</span> +<span class="Function">}</span> + +<span class="Special">[[</span> <span class="Statement">-z</span> <span class="PreProc">$1</span> <span class="Special">]]</span> &amp;&amp; wm cwm + +wm <span class="PreProc">$1</span> + </pre> + </code> + <br /> + <a class='a_img' href='/img/2013-10-28-final.jpg'> + <img class='a_img' src='/img/thumb/2013-10-28-final.jpg' alt='final screenshot'/> + </a> + <span class="caption">That shot show off the whole setup, with + prompt, bar, applications, etc... + I hope you will like it! + </span> + </p> + + <hr/> + <h3 id="end">Conclusion</h3> + <p> + The end, finally. That is a damn long article. I have deliberately + not expanded some point by lack of "space". I want this article to + end someday.<br /> + It will give you a good start to tweak your own setup, and make it + look like what you want it to look.<br /> + <br /> + <strong>Make your environment yours, and have fun doing so!</strong> + </p> + </article> </section> </div>